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Database Admin - Glossary

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The database administration features and wizards are integrated into Oracle Enterprise Manager. You can access the database administration features through the Console. The Console can either be launched with a connection to an Oracle Management Server, which utilizes Oracle Enterprise Manager's three-tier framework, or launched standalone, which connects directly to a database. The Console's Databases folder allows you to administer database instances, schemas, security, and storage, and other database features from a unified tree view. The unified access to administration functions offered by the Databases folder makes it easy to switch between tasks and to gain an accurate overall view of the database configuration status. When you expand a database in the tree, a list of database features appears below.
ACID
Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability.
ActiveX
Microsoft COM (Component Object Model) standard that allows for code to be placed into objects, or components, so that they can be reused by other programs or processes.
Alert
A database object that defines what actions will be taken when a specific event occurs.
Authentication
The process of validating an account's ability to connect to SQL Server.
BCP (Bulk Copy Program)
A command-line SQL Server utility that can extract data from a SQL Server database, place it into a text file, and load the text file into another SQL Server database. This utility is very fast because the transactions are not logged in the transaction log.
Business rule
A rule or condition that applies a business policy to the data stored on company databases.
Business rules
A set of rules or conditions describing the business polices that apply to the data stored on a company databases.
Cascade
A process, such as updating or deleting that causes related tables to perform updates and deletes also.
Database login
Permissions given to a server login that allows access to one or more databases within a server.
Deadlock
A situation that occurs when two processes are dependent on each other, resulting in an impass.
delimited field
A delimited field is a variable-length field where the field length is set based on the field's contents. Commonly used delimiters in export files include the comma (,), semicolon (;), and colon (:).
Deny
To specifically not allow permission to a user, as in denying a user access to a table.
Distributed transaction
A SQL Server 2018 transaction in which data is distributed across multiple SQL Server.
DTS (Data Transformation Services)
A set of SQL Server objects that allows you to transfer data between multiple data sources very quickly, easily, and efficiently. DTS also provides wizards to allow you to specify elements of the source and destination data.
Encapsulate
The process of writing Transact-SQL or other code so that one or more complete business function(s) is achieved solely through that code. This makes it possible for other processes to invoke this encapsulated code without needing to know how it is written, only what it does.
Event
A process that begins when specific, defined actions occur.
Execution plan
The path that SQL Server will take to execute an SQL query. This path identifies indexes, join types, and more.
Fatal error
An error that prevents further processing from continuing.
Fire
The process of running code when an event occurs
Fixed database role
One of the database roles provided by SQL Server that, depending on the role, allows specific database actions to be performed. Fixed database roles can not be modified.
Fixed server role
One of the server-wide roles provided by SQL Server that allows administration of the server itself. Fixed server roles can not be modified.
Fully qualified path
Indicates to SQL Server exactly where to find the requested resource and must be in this format SERVER_NAME.DATABASE_NAME.OWNER_NAME.RESOURCE_NAME
Function
A function is a predefined formula that performs calculations by using values called arguments.
Grant
To allow a user to perform a specific function.
Handling errors
The process of testing for errors and taking action based on those errors.
Isolation level
One of the four levels that determine how effectively SQL Server will allow multiple users to make concurrent changes to data. The highest level of concurrency (serializable) uses the most resources. The lowest level of concurrency (Read uncommitted) uses the least resources.
Linked server
A server that will be accessed using distributed queries from the current server.
Mixed-mode
The term given to SQL Server’s ability to check authentication from within SQL Server first. Then, if authentication fails, SQL Server checks authentication from Windows NT.
Nesting
The process of one trigger causing a chain reaction of other triggers to fire.
OLE DB
API based on the Microsoft COM (Component Object Model) standard that is used for very fast communication with an SQL database.
Optimistic locking
This locking scheme is used when it is assumed that no other user will change data after you read it and before you save it.
Pessimistic locking
This locking scheme is used when it is assumed that a user will change data between the time that you read it and save it.
Relevance Ranking
Relevance ranking is the method that is used to order the results set in such a way that the records most likely to be of interest to a user will be at the top of the result set. This makes searching easier for users as they will not have to spend as much time looking through records for the information that interests them.
Revoke
To undo the effect of a grant or deny statement.
Server login
Permissions given to a network login that allows access to a particular server, but not any database within that server.
Stored procedure
A compiled set of SQL logic, stored within SQL Server, that can be called from another SQL statement.
Tablespace
Oracle Database stores a schema object logically within a tablespace. There is no relationship between schemas and tablespaces: a tablespace can contain objects from different schemas, and the objects for a schema can be contained in different tablespaces. The data of each object is physically contained in one or more data files. Tablespace Diagram
Timeout
A period of time, usually measured in seconds, in which a given.process attempts to complete. If the process doesn't complete within the allotted period of time, the process aborts with an error and "times-out".
Trace
A visual representation of the performance of certain events.
Transaction
A transaction is a single unit of work that either succeeds or fails as a unit, regardless of the number of steps involved or the number of participants in the transaction. Transactions initiated by an Active Server Page script are managed by Microsoft Transaction Server (MTS).

Trigger
Code that is executed in response to a database event, or in response to a SQL statement issued against a table.
Two-phase commit
Aprocess used by distributed transactions to successfully roll back or commit transactions over multiple computers. This is done in two phases, prepare and commit.
Variable
An identifier of a specific type that is used to store a value or reference to an object
VBScript
A scripting language that resembles Visual Basic in syntax, but is not compiled and cannot be used to write applications. It’s main usefulness is to give programmatic control over web pages and DTS packages.