|Lesson 2||Advantages of clusters |
|Objective||Know when to use clustered tables. |
Advantages of Clustered Tables in Oracle
In theory, each data object within an Oracle database is a totally separate entity. In practice, certain tables are frequently used together, especially when using a normalized database design.
A cluster is a way of organizing data to leverage the related nature of data stored in different locations.
What is a cluster?
Simply put, a cluster ties data values to disk location.
A cluster key is used to group data together. All rows of all tables with the same value of the cluster key are stored in the same data block. The following Slide Show shows the difference between a normal table and a clustered table.
- In a normal table and index, the index tree has an entry for each row in the underlying data table, regardless of value
- If you wanted to access all the data for a particular index value, you would access each index value and its associated row in the table.
- In a cluster, Oracle keeps a single entry for each value in the cluster key.
- To access all the rows in a table that have the same value in the cluster key, Oracle reads a single entry from the cluster key
Clustered Versus Non-Clustered
Advantages of a cluster
Since related data is stored together, the related data can be accessed with fewer data block reads. With a cluster, Oracle reads the cluster key, which directly points to the disk area that contains the data for that value of the key. The cluster delivers two advantages:
- First of all, a query can retrieve all the related data with usually no more than 2 logical reads:
For instance, if an employee table is clustered on the department number, a query for employees in a department would first retrieve the relevant cluster key for the department and then the employee rows for that department.
If an order header table and an order detail table were clustered together, one read would retrieve the order cluster key and one more read would retrieve both the order header and detail rows for that order.
- one to get the cluster key and
- another to retrieve a data block that contains only the relevant data.
- The second advantage is that the value for the cluster key is only stored once, and this reduces the amount of space required for storage.
When to use a cluster
The ideal places to use a cluster are when you have a group of tables that are frequently queried together, or when you have a single table that is frequently accessed by an index value. For example, you might cluster an order header table and an order detail table together. If you frequently accessed employees by department, you may want to cluster an employee table by department.
When not to use a cluster
In some situations, a cluster is definitely not appropriate. You should not use a cluster in the following situations:
- If the value for a cluster key is updated frequently.
- If the data for the values of the cluster key takes up more than one or two Oracle data blocks.
- If you frequently require full table scans on the clustered data.
For an explanation of why clustering is not appropriate in these cases, check this
Oracle Clustering Advantages
The next lesson shows how to create a cluster.