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Lesson 4 Locating the Shared Server executable file
ObjectiveFind the executable file for Oracle Shared Server

Locating the Shared Server Executable File

The concept of a "Shared Server Executable File" in Oracle typically relates to the architecture Oracle uses to manage connections and execute SQL commands, particularly in the context of the Shared Server architecture (formerly known as Multi-Threaded Server, MTS). This architecture allows multiple user processes to share a smaller number of server processes, which can improve system scalability by reducing the memory and process requirements on the server. This concept is not directly related to the version of Oracle Database nor is it exclusively applicable to Oracle 9i through Oracle 12c. The Shared Server architecture is a feature that has been available in Oracle databases for many versions, including before 9i and extending beyond Oracle 12c. It is designed to efficiently manage connections, especially in environments where there are a high number of concurrent connections performing light workloads.
Oracle Management Cloud (OMC), on the other hand, is a separate cloud-based management suite introduced by Oracle to provide comprehensive monitoring, management, and analytics across Oracle Cloud and on-premises environments. The introduction and use of OMC are not tied to the existence or elimination of the Shared Server architecture in Oracle databases. Even in newer versions of Oracle Database, including those beyond Oracle 12c, the Shared Server architecture remains an option for specific use cases where it is beneficial. The evolution of Oracle Database and the introduction of new features and services like OMC are part of Oracle's ongoing efforts to enhance performance, scalability, and manageability. These include improvements in the
  1. Multitenant architecture,
  2. Autonomous Database capabilities, and
  3. advanced performance monitoring and management features.
However, these enhancements do not necessarily mean the discontinuation of older architectural options like the Shared Server, which may still be relevant in certain scenarios. In summary, the Shared Server architecture is a feature available across many versions of Oracle Database, not limited to Oracle 9i through 12c, and its use or applicability is not directly affected by the introduction or use of Oracle Management Cloud.

Now that you know where your Oracle Home is, it's time to find the "executable file" for the Shared Server . The executable file is named differently under different operating systems. You need to know the correct name for the executable file under your operating system, because the name is used in the command to start Shared Server. Oracle always stores executable files in the "bin directory" underneath Oracle Home. That is one thing you can count on. To find the executable, you need to go to Oracle's bin directory, and search for files starting with that string smon_.

Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control (EMCC) in Oracle 19c

Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control (EMCC) hasn't had any major updates since version 13c, released in 2013. Since then, Oracle has shifted its focus to Oracle Management Cloud (OMC). This means the concept of a "Shared Server executable" isn't relevant to Oracle 19c, as it primarily exists within the EMCC framework. Oracle 19c utilizes a different architecture for managing databases, focusing on cloud-based solutions and services offered by OMC.
The "Shared Server executable name" in Oracle 19c doesn't apply directly.

Oracle Cloud DBA use the "Oracle Management Cloud"

Oracle Management Cloud (OMC) is a suite of cloud services designed to provide a comprehensive management solution for applications, databases, and infrastructure across both Oracle Cloud and on-premises environments. As an Oracle Cloud DBA, using OMC to administer databases involves several key activities:
  1. Performance Monitoring: OMC provides real-time performance monitoring capabilities that allow DBAs to track database performance metrics, identify bottlenecks, and diagnose issues. This includes monitoring SQL execution, response times, and resource utilization (CPU, memory, I/O) to ensure optimal performance.
  2. Database Management: Through its unified dashboard, OMC enables DBAs to manage multiple databases, whether they reside on the cloud or on-premises. This includes tasks such as starting and stopping databases, scaling resources, managing storage, and configuring settings.
  3. Automated Backups and Recovery: OMC facilitates the scheduling of automated backups, ensuring that data is securely backed up in the cloud. In the event of data loss or corruption, DBAs can use OMC to perform point-in-time recoveries, minimizing downtime and data loss.
  4. Security Management: OMC provides comprehensive security features to protect databases from unauthorized access and potential threats. This includes monitoring for unusual activity, assessing vulnerabilities, managing user access and privileges, and enforcing security policies.
  5. Compliance and Auditing: OMC helps ensure that databases comply with regulatory standards and internal policies. It provides tools for auditing database activities, tracking changes, and generating reports that can be used for compliance reviews.
  6. Capacity Planning and Optimization: OMC offers tools for analyzing resource usage and predicting future requirements, enabling DBAs to make informed decisions about scaling and optimizing resources to meet demand while controlling costs.
  7. Automation and Orchestration: DBAs can use OMC to automate routine tasks such as patching, updates, and configurations using pre-defined policies and scripts. This reduces manual effort and the potential for human error.
  8. Integration with Other Oracle Cloud Services: OMC is designed to work seamlessly with other Oracle Cloud services like Oracle Autonomous Database, Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, and Oracle Application Performance Monitoring, providing a holistic view and management of the entire technology stack.
  9. Customizable Dashboards and Reporting: OMC allows DBAs to create customizable dashboards that provide a comprehensive view of database health, performance, and security. It also offers advanced analytics and reporting capabilities for deeper insights.
  10. Proactive Alerting and Notification: DBAs can configure alerts based on specific thresholds or events, ensuring that they are promptly notified of potential issues or performance degradations, allowing for quick response and resolution.

By leveraging these features and capabilities, Oracle Cloud DBAs can effectively manage, monitor, and optimize databases in the cloud, ensuring high performance, availability, and security, while also benefiting from the scalability and flexibility of cloud computing.

Locate the executable file for "Oracle Shared Server" on the Windows Server 2019 Operating System

Locating the executable file for "Oracle Shared Server" in an Oracle 12c environment hosted on a Windows Server 2019 Operating System necessitates a precise and systematic approach. Oracle Shared Server, previously known as Multi-Threaded Server (MTS), is a configuration that enables the database to handle a large number of user connections simultaneously, without necessitating an equal number of dedicated server processes.
  1. Identify Oracle Home: First and foremost, ascertain the Oracle Home directory for your Oracle 12c installation. Oracle Home is the directory path where the Oracle Database software is installed. You can determine the Oracle Home path by inspecting the 'ORACLE_HOME' environment variable, or through the registry, by navigating to:

    Here, `<Oracle Home Name>` corresponds to the unique name identifying your Oracle 12c home. Within this registry key, the “ORACLE_HOME” string value will provide the path to your Oracle Home directory.
  2. Navigate to the Oracle Home Directory: Utilize the File Explorer to navigate to the Oracle Home directory. In a standard installation, the path might resemble:

    Here, `12.x.x` represents your Oracle Database version, and `dbhome_n` is a specific identifier for your Oracle Home.
  3. Locate the Executable: The Oracle Shared Server’s functionality is ingrained within the Oracle Database software and does not exist as a standalone executable. However, the key Oracle Database executables reside in the `bin` directory within the Oracle Home. Navigate to this directory:

    Here, you will find the Oracle executable files. The primary Oracle Database executable on Windows is `oracle.exe`.
  4. Verify Oracle Shared Server Configuration: Ensure that Oracle Shared Server is configured and running. You can accomplish this by connecting to the database using SQL*Plus and executing the following queries:
    SHOW PARAMETER shared_servers;
    SHOW PARAMETER dispatchers;

    These commands will display the configuration of shared servers and dispatchers, respectively. Verify that the shared servers are configured and active.
  5. Validate Through Services: You can also verify the Oracle services running on your Windows Server 2019 operating system by executing `services.msc` from the Run dialog. Here, look for services related to your Oracle 12c installation, such as ‘OracleService’ and ‘OracleOraDB12Home1TNSListener’, ensuring they are running.
Locating the executable for Oracle Shared Server in Oracle 12c on a Windows Server 2019 operating system is intrinsically tied to understanding the Oracle Database architecture and knowing where to find and how to verify the relevant configurations. The systematic approach outlined above ensures a methodical traversal through the necessary steps, providing clarity and precision in locating the essential components related to Oracle Shared Server. Ensuring that the Oracle Shared Server is properly configured and verifying its status through the appropriate queries and system checks is paramount in maintaining a robust and efficient database environment.

Server Manager was replaced with extended SQL*Plus implementation in Oracle 9i

The SQL*Plus program allows users to access SQL and the Oracle SQL extensions. This combination of commands, SQL, and the Oracle SQL extensions enable users and the DBA
  1. to access the database by means of standard SQL and
  2. to format input and output using the SQL*Plus extensions to the language.
In Oracle9i, the Server Manager (SVRMGR) program was completely eliminated in favor of an extended SQL*Plus implementation.
SQL*Plus has a command buffer[1] that stores the current command and allows the user to edit the command using the native system editor or via command-line input. SQL*Plus also allows the user to
  1. store,
  2. retrieve, and
  3. execute
SQL/SQL*Plus command scripts, as well as PL/SQL command scripts. In SQL*Plus, local variables can be assigned as well as providing control of system variables used for format and display control.

SQL*Plus can also be used to dynamically create command scripts that can then be used to perform changes to users, tables, or other Oracle objects. If DBAs are not familiar with SQL*Plus, it is suggested they review the SQL*Plus reference guide. SQL*Plus can be accessed once the user has set the appropriate system variables and path, which is done using the
command on UNIX and Linux; in some environments the ORACLE_SID variable may have to be set to point to your database. On Windows Server, the user must either set some environmental variables or use connect aliases.

Why are there so many different executable names used under Windows?

The reason the executable names vary so much under Windows is that Oracle tries as much as possible to support the installation of multiple releases of their products on a single machine. Under UNIX that is done by creating separate Oracle Home directories for each Oracle release. For some reason, when Oracle first ported their product to Windows, multiple Oracle homes were not technically feasible. The compromise solution, which only allowed multiple releases of the client software, was to embed release numbers in the executable names.
The 12 in the name represents the first two digits of the product's release number. This works to keep the executables for different versions separate, but it became a bit confusing as the individual product release numbers did not always match the database release numbers. The various Oracle utility release numbers were usually off by a value of five in the first digit. Thus, you had:

Oracle synchronized Product Release Numbers [Historical Note]

When Oracle8 was first shipped, Oracle synchronized many of the product release numbers to match the database server release number. One of the exceptions was Server Manager. While products like SQL*Plus jumped from release 2.3 to release 8.0, Server Manager was simply advanced to release 3.0.
Beginning with the Oracle8i release, Oracle has figured out how to support multiple Oracle homes on Windows Server. Because of that, there is no need to embed the release number in the executable name, and the Server Manager now uses the UNIX naming convention.
[1]command buffer: The command buffer plays a vital role in facilitating your interaction with the database by providing a temporary storage space for your SQL statements or PL/SQL blocks before they are executed. Here's a breakdown of its

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