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Lesson 5 The protocol.ora file
Objective Explain how the protocol.ora file operates.

Overview of Unsupported Features

In an effort to streamline configuration decisions for the Internet, the following subsections describe the features and the configuration file that are no longer being supported:
  1. Oracle Names: Oracle Names is no longer supported as a naming method in Oracle Database 10g . You must migrate to directory naming.
  2. Identix and SecurID Authentication Methods: If you are using Identix or SecurID authentication methods, provided by Oracle Advanced Security, Oracle Corporation recommends migrating to one of the following authentication methods: 1) RADIUS, 2) Kerberos, 3) SSL
  3. Novell Directory Services (NDS) External Naming and NDS Authentication: Support for NDS as an authentication method and as an external naming method is no longer supported. If you are using NDS as an external naming method, Oracle Corporation recommends using directory naming instead.
  4. Net8 OPEN: Net8 OPEN, which provided an application program interface (API) that enabled programmers to develop both database and non-database applications, is no longer supported.
  5. protocol.ora File: The protocol.ora file is no longer supported. Parameters in the protocol.ora file have been merged into the sqlnet.ora file. These parameters enable you to configure access control to the database, as well as no delays in TCP/IP buffer flushing. These parameters include:
    1)TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES, 2) TCP.INVITED_NODES, 3)TCP.NODELAY, 4) TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING
    If you have a protocol.ora file in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory on UNIX, and the ORACLE_HOME\network\admin directory on Windows operating systems, Oracle Net Manager, when first started, automatically merges the protocol.ora parameters into the sqlnet.ora file. There may be operating system-specific parameters in protocol.ora that are node specific. For this reason, Oracle Corporation recommends not sharing sqlnet.ora with other nodes after merging or adding these parameters.

Protocols

Protocol addresses using the SPX or LU6.2 protocol must be replaced. Oracle Net provides support for the following network protocols:
1) TCP/IP, 2) TCP/IP with SSL, 3) Named Pipes, 4) SDP

Protocol.ora File Operations and Functionality (Legacy)

The protocol.ora file is required when "unusual" protocols are introduced into the Oracle environment, rendering the default protocol settings inappropriate. The protocol.ora file also defines node-specific and protocol-specific addressing information for certain non-standard protocols.
The following protocols require parameters to be listed in protocol.ora:
  1. APPC/TCPIP
  2. ASYNC
  3. X.25
  4. OSI4
Following is a sample protocol.ora file for cross-protocol communications between LU6.2 and TCP/IP:

PROTOCOL.ORA
LOCAL_LOOKUP.dilbert=
(ADDRESS_LIST=
(ADDRESS=
(PROTOCOL=tcpip)
(CONNECT_PROFILE=hnl1)
(MODE=ORALU62)
(TPN_PROFILE=HSW)
))

For a unified protocol environment such as TCP/IP, the protocol.ora file is not used.
But there is one significant exception to this rule, which we will look at in the next lesson.