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Lesson 7One-to-many Relationships
Objective Identify one-to-many relationships.

Identify One-to-many Relationships

Question: How does a data designer identify One-to-many Relationships in an ERD model ?
A data designer identifies one-to-many relationships in an Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD) model by following a systematic approach that involves understanding the entities, their attributes, and the relationships between them. An ERD is a graphical representation of an organization's data and its structure, enabling data designers to visualize the relationships among various data elements.
To identify one-to-many relationships in an ERD model, a data designer should:
  1. Identify the entities: Begin by recognizing the key entities in the model. Entities are real-world objects or concepts that can be described using data, such as customers, products, or orders.
  2. Define the attributes: For each entity, identify the attributes that describe its characteristics. Attributes are data points associated with an entity, such as name, address, or date of birth.
  3. Determine relationship cardinality: Examine the relationships between entities and establish their cardinality, which specifies the number of instances of one entity that can be associated with instances of another entity. Cardinalities can be one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-many.
  4. Identify one-to-many relationships: Focus on relationships with a one-to-many cardinality. In a one-to-many relationship, a single instance of one entity (the parent) is associated with multiple instances of another entity (the child), but each child instance is associated with only one parent instance. For example, a customer can place multiple orders, but each order is placed by only one customer.
  5. Use notation to represent relationships: In an ERD, one-to-many relationships are typically represented by a line connecting the related entities. The line has a crow's foot symbol at the end of the child entity, indicating multiple instances, and a straight line or a single bar at the end of the parent entity, signifying a single instance.
  6. Validate the relationships: Review the identified one-to-many relationships to ensure they align with the business rules and requirements. Consult with stakeholders, such as subject matter experts, to confirm that the relationships accurately reflect the real-world scenarios.

By following this process, a data designer can effectively identify and represent one-to-many relationships in an ERD model, providing a clear and comprehensive visual representation of the organization's data structure. This representation facilitates improved communication among team members and supports the development of efficient and accurate database systems.
Because one-to-one relationships are rare, and because all many-to-many relationships must be converted into one-to-many relationships (you will find out why later on in this module), most databases are comprised entirely of one-to-many relationships. A typical business rule for a 1:N relationship might be stated as follows:
Each employee is assigned to one department; each department has many employees.

The two entities represented in the example above are EMPLOYEE and DEPARTMENT.
The EMPLOYEE:DEPARTMENT relationship is 1:1; for DEPARTMENT:EMPLOYEE the relationship is 1:N.
The “N” in 1:N represents either a value greater than one or an unlimited value.
One-to-many relationships are fairly easy to identify. Consider the examples illustrated in the following Slide Show:

  1. Customer may place many orders (1:N)
  2. and each order comes from a single customer.
  3. Every project is assigned to a project manager
  4. But a project manager may be assigned to no more than three projects (1:N)
  5. A vendor supplies many products (1:N)
  6. but each product comes from a single vendor.

Identifying Relationships

many-to-one (N:1) Relationship

A many-to-one (N:1) relationship is a mirror image of a one-to-many (1:N) relationship. They are treated identically.
Once a 1:N relationship has been identified, it is a snap to create a link between two entities: the entity (table) on the “many” side of the relationship receives the key attribute (primary key) from the entity (table) on the “one” side of the relationship. The graphic below illustrates the link between the EMPLOYEE and DEPARTMENT entities:

Link between EMPLOYEE and DEPARTMENT entities
Link between EMPLOYEE and DEPARTMENT entities.
The entity on the 'many' side of the relationship receives the key attribute (primary key) from the entity on the 'one' side of the relationship.

The next lesson defines many-to-many relationships.

One To Many Relationships - Exercise

Before moving on to the next lesson, click the Exercise link below to check your understanding of one-to-many relationships.
One To Many Relationships - Exercise