Describe Physical Database Design in terms of optimizing Database Performance
Physical Database Design
How a Computer stores Data
A computer's hard disk is more than a collection of 1s and 0s. To manage the data on a hard disk effectively, a computer's operating system (such as Windows or Unix) divides the disk into blocks.
Each block can hold a certain amount of information. If a file is too large to fit onto a single block, the computer finds the next empty block, continues writing the file there, and repeats the process until the file is completely written to the disk. The following illustration shows how a hard disk might be divided among several files.
Note the file titled word1.doc is written on five blocks; the file me.gif is written on five blocks; and the file resume.doc is written on seven blocks. Any given block can hold information from only a single file.
Adding and modifying Files
If you have created and modified a number of files, it is unlikely that all of the data for a particular file will be stored on contiguous blocks. Suppose you create a document using a word processor, save a graphic from a World Wide Web site,
and then add a page to the word processor document. Because the operating system writes files to open blocks in the order that the files are created and modified, the physical layout of the files on the disk would be similar to the layout in the following graphic.
The next time you open the word processor document, the computer will consult its internal directory of stored files, read the data from the first set of blocks, move to the second area of the disk, and then read the second set of blocks. The more often a computer needs to move to another area of the disk to read part of a file, the longer it takes to read the file.
Improving performance using Physical Design
Most RDBMS's are able to rearrange files on a hard disk to store records from a table in contiguous blocks. You can go even farther and use other techniques to improve the performance of your database, including:
The following series of images offers a quick overview of these techniques.
The remaining lessons in this module examine each in greater depth and list their advantages and disadvantages.
Physical Design Overview
The process of producing a description of the implementation of the database database on secondary storage is known as physical design.
Physical Design describes the
file design organizations, and
used to achieve efficient access to the data, and any associated integrity constraints and security measures.
The physical database design phase allows the designer to make decisions on how the database is to be implemented.
Therefore, physical design is tailored to a specific DBMS. There is feedback between physical and logical design, because decisions taken during physical design for improving performance may affect the logical data model.
The next lesson introduces indexing.
block: The smallest area that can be addressed on a magnetic disk.